Upon the establishment of Chao'an Court of Jia Qing Emperor on July 8, 1800, more immigrants poured into Changchun. Therefore, the population has been increased since then.
By 1991, the third year of Xuan Tong Emperor, the population of Changchun Fu, Yushu, Nongan, Dehui and Shuangyang was 591,000, 423,000, 432,000, 328,000 and 233,000 respectively. Just before the "9.18" Event in 1931, the population of Changchun County, Yushu County, Nongan County, Dehui County and Shuangyang County recorded 478,000, 502,000, 318,000, 376,000 and 247,000.
China has so far carried out several national censuses since 1949. The outcome of the population of Changchun in each of the past censuses was:
The first national census in 1953: the total population was 3.163 million, including 1.70 million males and 1.54 million females, a sex ratio of 110:67 (males per 100 females).
The fifth national census in 2000: the total population was 7.14 million, including 3.65 million males and 3.49 million females, a sex ratio of 104:72 (males per 100 females). The population of urban citizens was 3.55 million, accounting for 49.79% of the total, and number of rural residents accounted for 50.21% totaling 3.59 million. Family size recorded 3.41 members averagely.
The total number of the registered permanent residents reached 7.24 million at the end of 2004, including 3.15 million in Changchun City and 4.09 million in Changchun's four administrative areas. The birth rate, death rate and natural increase rate was 8.94%, 4.76% and 4.17% respectively.
The population density of Changchun is 368 persons per square kilometer. Of the urban areas, Nan'guan District registered the highest rate of 2388 persons per square kilometer, while other counties (cities) recorded relatively lower, of which, Nongan only had 206 persons per square kilometer.
Changchun, a multi-ethnic region, has 46 minorities with a total population of 252,000(excluding Han), accounting for 3.53% of the total population. They are: Manchu, 143,000, accounting for 56.72%; Korean, 496,000, 19.67%; Hui, 437,000, 17.33%; Mongolian, 110,000, 4.4%; the rest, 1.88%.
There are 4 minority towns, 47 minority villages and 258 communities all over Changchun city.
Changchun is also a multi-religious region with a total religious population of 215,000 and 526 religious masters. Catholicism, Christianity, Buddhism and Islam are the four major religious groups in the city.
In Changchun, There are 6 religious communities at municipal level, 36 religious representatives of the National People's Congress and Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, and 315 places officially approved for religious activities, of which, 10 for Catholicism, 259 for Christianity, 24 for Buddhism and 22 for Islam. Five places are open to the public, including the church on No 5 Road, the church for Catholicism on Dongsi Street, the Mosque on Changtong Road and the BanroTemple and Dizang Temple.Education
Changchun is one of well-known cities of science and education in China. The city has 27 regular institutions of full-time tertiary education with a total enrollment of approximate 160,000 million students. Jilin University and Northeast Normal University boast of good reputation in China.
Jilin University, a conglomeration of five local universities, is the largest comprehensive university in China with a total area of 57 square kilometers and over 50,000 full-time students.
Changchun has 13 adult education institutions with over 30,000 full-time students, 615 middle schools with over 500,000 full-time students. The city has completed the task of making the nine-year compulsory education universal in rural areas, and the twelve-year education in urban areas.
Such advantages as good cultural atmosphere, modern education facilities and a very standard environment of learning Mandarin Chinese have made Changchun one of the favorite place for language students. There are over 1,300 foreign students from 50-plus countries studying at the local 18 colleges and universities.
Meanwhile, around 5,000 students go abroad for further education every year, thereby making Changchun rank highly in this regard.
Besides, the International Education Expo has been held here in Changchun for four years in a row. During each exposition, hundreds of schools and educational institutions from over twenty or thirty countries or more came for exhibition, cooperation negotiations, exchanging teachers and students and so on, which has helped Changchun accelerate the process of linking with the international education level.
Culture and Art
Changchun is a famous "city of film" in China. Changchun Film Studio is cradle of the New China's film undertaking the country's largest and comprehensive film production base. Since 1949, the Studio has produced over 2,000 films and cultivated many film producing talents for the country. Since 1992, the biyearly China Changchun Film Festival has become a unique gala for film industries at home and abroad.
Changchun has expanded its art and culture exchange activities with foreign countries. In recent years, a large batch of world renowned art groups have come to Changchun for good-will visits, for example, the Red Army Choir and Little Birch Art Troupe from Russia, Pushkin Corps De Ballet, Philharmonics from Vienna and Germany. All these programs have enriched the public's cultural activities and promoted the culture exchanges between Changchun and other countries and regions.
Changchun International Sculpture Symposium has so far become one of most international art activities around the world. With the theme of "friendship, peace and spring", Changchun has so far invited 108 countries' 256 sculptors completing 282 pieces of art over the past eight years. These artworks have now been showcased in Changchun Sculpture Park, and therefore become another picturesque landscape in Changchun.
Changchun is now preparing for the forthcoming China Changchun 2006 International Sculpture Symposium.
Changchun has 830 medical care (health care) institutions, of which, over 250 institutions rank above county level with a total bed capacity of more than 30,000.
The number of the doctors and patient beds serving per 10,000 people in Changchun is respectively higher than the national average level of 75 per cent and 35 per cent. With the improved medical care facilities and health care level, and the deepened medical system reform, Changchun is undergoing the process of transition to a nation-level sanitation city.
In 2005, the natural population growth rate was decrease by 2.11 per cent, lower than of that of the national average level. The 75.9-year-old expected lifespan is higher than that of the national average level.
In recent years, Changchun's sports undertakings have made great breakthroughs in improving sports facilities, developing public sports activities and promoting athletic levels. The city has a large-scale stadium which can hold over 40,000 audiences and a gymnasium with a total accommodation capacity of over 10,000 people. Besides, Changchun also has some modern ice and snow sports facilities such as ice hockey and speed skating gymnasiums, which lays a solid foundation for the city to develop ice and snow sports.
Changchun has so far hosted many important sports events such as World short-track speed skating competition, international automobile rallies, the 9th National Winter Sports Games, Pingpong, football and basketball tournaments and so on. Just in 2005, the local athletes won over 10 international gold medals.
The 6th Asian Winter Games is scheduled to be held from January 26 to February 10, 2007 in Changchun. At present, the preparations for the forthcoming sports gala are under sooth process.